Wednesday, January 27, 2010
Chhattisgarh, a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. Raipur serves as its capital. It is the 10th largest state of India by area of 52,199 sq mi (135,194 km²). Chhattisgarh takes its name from 36 (Chattis is thirty-six in Hindi and Garh is Fort) princely states in this region from very old times, though the listing of these 36 forts has always remained a point of dispute.
It borders Madhya Pradesh on the northwest, Maharashtra on the west, Andhra Pradesh on the south, Orissa on the east, Jharkhand on the northeast and Uttar Pradesh on the north.
The Chhattisgarhi language, a dialect of eastern Hindi, is a predominant language in the state, recognized along with Hindi as the official language of the state. In addition, many tribal and some Dravidian influenced dialects or languages are spoken in various parts of Chhattisgarh.
it is situated in central eastern part of the country. The north and south parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertile plain. Forests cover roughly forty-four percent of the state.
The northern part of the state lies on the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain: The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain.
The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi and its tributaries, with extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills, (part of the Satpuras), and from the plains of Orissa to the east by ranges of hills.
The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary the Indravati River. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. Other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk and Arpa.It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh. Maoist insurgency has been main source of instability, recently they ambushed to kill 40 policemen.
The rail network in Chattisgarh is centered on Katni in Madhya Pradesh and Bilaspur, which is zonal headquarters of South East Central Railway of Indian Railways. Other main railway junction include the capital Raipur only.These two junctions are well connected to the major cities of India.
The roadways infrastructure is also slowly picking up in the state. The National Highway 6 (Bombay to Kolkata) passes through the state. The state also hosts National Highway 43 which starts from Raipur and goes up to Vishakhapatnam. National Highway 16 from Hyderabad ends at Bhopalpatnam in Dantewada district. The state has 11 National Highways (2,225 kilometres).
The air infrastructure is minor. Raipur, the village capital city, is the sole commercially operating airport of the state. However, of late, Raipur has shown low upsurge in passenger traffic. Raipur has links to top cities of the country i.e. Delhi (2 Flights a day), Bombay (1 Flight a day), Bhopal (4 Flights a day),Indore (3 Flights a day), and Chennai (1 Flight a day). It is also connected to Jaipur (1 Flight a day), Nagpur (2 Flights a day), Bhubaneshwar, Ahmedabad (2 Flights a day), Gwalior, Vizag and Hyderabad (2 Flights a day). The state, however, has airport in its capital Raipur only.
Among 93 dialects spoken in Chhattisgarh, 70 are classified as belonging to the Indo-European language family. Under Chhattisgarhi group, the dialects spoken by Agariya, Binjhwari, Baigani, Bhuliya, Lariya, Dhanwar, Panka, Dindwar and many other tribals are included.