Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east of 28,833 sq mi (74,677 km²). The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital. Some of the other major cities and industrial centres are Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Sindri, Deoghar, Hazaribagh, Lohardaga and Gumla.
The name "Jharkhand" comes from the Sanskrit word Jharikhanda, which is the ancient name of the region's dense forest.
The state of Jharkhand became a functioning reality on November 15, 2000 after almost half a century of people's movements around Jharkhandi identity, which disadvantaged societal groups articulated in order to augment political resources and influence the policy process in their favour. The Jharkhandi identity and the demand for autonomy was not premised solely on the uniqueness of its tribal cultural heritage, but was essentially a fallout of the failure of development policy to intervene in socio-economic conditions of both the adivasis and non-adivasis in the region.
This paradoxical development profile of Jharkhand is combined with the fact that distortions in distribution and access to resources have made little difference to lives of ordinary people. However, the people of the region are politically mobilized and self-conscious and are actively seeking better bargains for the state. The people in Jharkhand have the advantage of being culturally vibrant, as reflected in the diversity of languages spoken, festivals celebrated, and variety of folk music, dances, and other traditions of performing arts.